[区块链]区块链技术在冷链运输领域的应用

文章概要

Summary

本文以冷链运输产业为切入点,通过研究目前冷链运输行业存在的问题,结合当前的行业现状与主流冷链运输方式,与区块链技术的优势相结合,分析行业痛点,给出针对性的解决思路。

This paper takes the cold chain transportation industry as the starting point, researches the existing problems in the cold chain transportation industry and combines with the current status of industry and the mainstream mode of cold chain transportation and the advantages of the block chain technology to analyze industry pain points and provide the targeted solving ideas.


冷链物流背景

Background of Cold Chain Logistics

冷链物流(Cold Chain Logistics) 泛指冷藏冷冻类食品在生产、贮藏运输、销售,到消费前的各个环节中始终处于规定的低温环境下,以保证食品质量,减少食品损耗的一项系统工程。目前冷链物流主要适用领域有三部分:

Cold Chain Logistics generally refers to a system engineering that refrigerated and frozen food is always stored at low temperature as specified in every link from production, preservation and transportation, sales and pre-consumption to ensure food quality and reduce food loss. At present, cold chain logistics is applicable to three fields:

其一,速冻食品,以三全、思念两个企业为代表。速冻食品对贮藏运输要求十分严格,必须保证在零下18摄氏度以下。专业化、社会化、并能不断适应市场变化的速冻食品冷链配送体系尚未形成。

First is quick-frozen food, represented by Sanquan and Synear. Quick-frozen food is strict with preservation and transportation requirements, which must be carried out at the temperature of -18℃. However, the professional, socialized quick-frozen food cold chain distribution system which can constantly adapt to market changes has not yet been formed.

其二,乳制品,以蒙牛、伊利、光明等奶制品企业为代表。奶制品对运输温度尤其敏感,主流的奶制品公司对鲜奶运输的温度掌控十分严格。

Second is the dairy product, represented by Mengniu, Yili, Bright and other dairy enterprises. Dairy products are extremely sensitive to transportation temperature, so mainstream dairy companies are strict with the transportation temperature of fresh milk.

其三,农副产品,以雨润冷鲜肉为代表。目前我国农副产品的冷链运输依然没有形成相应的规模。主要是农产品冷链建设成本高、仓库占地面积大、商品时效性高,很难形成全品类的农产品冷链物流平台。

Third is agricultural and sideline products, represented by Yurun chilled meat. At present, corresponding scale has not been formed in China’s cold chain transportation of agricultural and sideline products. It is mainly due to high construction cost of cold chain for agricultural products, large floor space of the warehouse and high timeliness of the commodities, making it difficult to form a full-range agricultural product cold chain logistics platform.

根据以上三个领域,我们可以分析出每个领域中的不同配送模式。目前主流的冷链配送模式主要包括三种:

According to the above three fields, we can analyze the different distribution mode in each field. At present, the mainstream cold chain distribution modes can mainly be divided into three types:

第一,自建物流体系。主要是像京东商城、天猫商城为代表的自营电商平台。其本身具有完整的物流体系,依托成熟的技术与雄厚的资本完成冷链体系搭建。或者如思念或者三全等速冻商品流通量巨大的行业领头企业,为了降低整体成本,进行完整的冷链物流体系搭建。

First is the self-built logistics system, mainly represented by the proprietary e-commerce platforms such as JD and Tmall. It has its own complete logistics system, so it can rely on the mature technology and strong capital to complete the construction of the cold chain system. Or like Synear or Sanquan and other quick-frozen food industry leaders with huge turn volume, they will establish a complete cold chain logistics system to reduce the total cost.

第二,建成冷链运输联盟。冷链物流中心投资大,回报周期长,不适合中小企业建设。现在一般中小企业主要采用物流企业与工商企业联盟的形式。

Second is to establish a cold chain transportation alliance. Cold chain logistics center requires big investment and has a longer return period, so it is not suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises. Recently, small and medium-sized enterprises usually adopt the way to form an alliance with logistics enterprises and industrial and commercial enterprises.

第三,完全外包给第三方物流公司。以麦当劳为例,其所有的配送均为夏晖公司提供。优点在于公司至于要将注意力放在主业上,无需为物流分心。

Third is the company that fully outsourced to a third-party logistics service provider. Take Mcdonald’s for example, its distribution services are provided by HAVI, in which case the advantage is that the company will pay attention to its main business without need to be bothered by the logistics.

以上三种各有优势,针对不同类型规模的企业可以有多样化的选择来进行冷链配送建设。对于大型集团等自有业务与冷链行业有交集的企业,一般回选择自建物流冷链体系,来完善自己的业务体系。中小型企业一般会选择以联盟的形势来进行冷链配送的建设,这样可以更好的利用有限的资金来更好的构建一部分自有冷链体系。对于初创企业或者创业公司而言,一般都会选择外包,来发展自己核心业务,规避非核心业务给自己带来的资金,人力成本。

The above types have their own advantages, so that different types and sizes of enterprises can have diversified options for construction of the cold chain distribution system. For large groups and other enterprises whose own business is overlapped with the cold chain industry, typically they will choose to construct their own cold chain logistics system to complete their own business system. Small and medium-sized enterprises generally choose to make use of the alliance to construct the cold chain distribution system, so that they can make better use of the limited capital to better construct some of their own cold chain system. For newly-established firms or start-up companies, they usually will choose to outsource to develop their own core business and avoid the capital and labor costs incurred by non-core business.

行业痛点分析

Analysis of Industry Pain Points

通过对以上行业的现状进行分析,我们可分析出目前冷链运输领域至少存在三个痛点:

After analysis of the status of industry as mentioned above, we can analyze that there are at least three pain points in the field of the cold chain transportation:

一、在复杂的跨地区运输过程中,尤其是在跨国冷链运输过程中,经常会出现更换承运商的情况,因此,实时的温度记录与追踪,在货物出现问题时,明确承运商责任可以起到重要作用。但目前温度记录的实时性比较差,因此责任不明确。

First, carrier is often replaced in the complex trans-regional transportation process, especially in the process of trans-national cold chain transportation, so temperature shall be recorded and tracked in real time, and it may play an important role to clarify the carrier’s responsibilities when problems are found in the goods. However, responsibility is undefined due to poor timeliness of the temperature record at present.

二、现在温度记录多为自动采集、人工记录、最后上传到中心数据库的方式。人工统计容易产生偏差,或者存在主观上左右记录结果的可能。中心数据库记录的方式,可靠性不高,重要数据需要进行冗余备份。

Second, the temperature records are automatically collected, manually recorded and finally uploaded to the central database in most cases. Artificial statistics are prone to deviations, or there may be a possibility to affect the record results subjectively. In addition, the recording mode of the center database is less reliable, so important data shall be provided with redundant backup.

三、在采用第三方物流运输时,尤其在农产品领域,存在货物分散的特点。目前存在着运力不透明的问题,难以实现资源共享。实现设备利用的最大化。

Third, scattered goods can be found in the case where third-party logistics transportation is adopted, especially in the field of agricultural products. At present, it is difficult to achieve resource sharing and maximize the use of equipment due to non-transparent transportation capacity.

那么针对目前存在的痛点,结合目前较前沿的技术区块链,我们来寻找一些突破口和思路。

So with regard to the current pain points and combined with the current more cutting-edge technology block chain, we will look for some holes and ideas.

区块链及新的思路

Block Chain and New Ideas

对区块链技术有过一些了解的人应该知道,其主要有以下特性。首先,去中心化、多方参与监管。第二,技术架构的稳定好、可靠性高。第三,记录公开透明,具有不可篡改性。我们现在结合上文中的行业痛点分析,可以得出以下思路:

People who have some knowledge of the block chain technology shall know that it mainly has the following characteristics. First is the decentralization and multi-participation regulation. Second is good stability and high reliability of the technical architecture. Third is the open and transparent record which cannot be tampered with. At present, we can draw the following ideas in combination with the analysis of industry pain points as mentioned above.

其一,利用可回收的温度传感器(通过开源SDK和Chronicled API支持Blockchain),实时记录货物信息,将温度信息与位置信息相匹配,实现综合信息上链。如果在货物流通时因为温度变化导致变质,很容易找到负责的承运商。同时也可以与智能合约相结合,在出现温度长时间异常时,自动向货主与承运人预警,避免出现更大损失,也免去了出问题后回溯信息的工作。

First, the recyclable temperature sensor (through the open-source SDK and Chronicled API to support Blockchain) can be used to record the goods information in real time and match the temperature and location information to put such comprehensive information on the chain. If the goods go bad during circulation due to temperature change, it is easy to get in touch with the responsible carrier. At the same time, it can also be combined with intelligent contract, so that it will automatically send an alarm to the goods owner and carrier in case of abnormal temperature for a long time to avoid greater losses as well as information recalling in case of such problem.

其二,区块链自身去中心化的特征,分布式的网络天然克服了中心化系统的各种弊端,同时其去中介化的特性避免了人为记录时,主观上左右记录结果的可能。

Second, for the decentralization characteristics of the block chain itself, the distributed network can naturally overcome various disadvantages in the centered system, and the disintermediation feature also avoids the possibility to affect the record results subjectively when manually recording.

其三,利用区块链技术的记录公开透明的特性,与更多客户分享自己承运能力,实现冷链物流资源利用的最大化。

Third, the open and transparent characteristics of the record of the block chain technology can be used to share their own carrying capacity with more customers to maximize the utilization of cold chain logistics resources.

其四,结合区块链技术多方参与,实时监管的特性。通过针对中小企业利用联盟搭建冷链配送的方式,结合智能合约,纳入监管实时,来通过区块链技术搭建一个大的冷链配送生态。不仅仅只是在形式和资金上形成联盟,而且还通过全方位数据共享,共识的智能合约进行约束,实时的监管约束风险,最终实现在资金流、物流、信息流和商业流四流合一的冷链配送资源生态。

Fourth is to combine the characteristics of multi-participation and real-time regulation of the block chain technology. Through the way of small and medium-sized enterprises to establish the cold chain distribution system based on the alliance and combined with intelligent contract to incorporate into real-time regulation, the block chain technology shall be used to establish the big cold chain distribution ecology. The alliance shall be formed not only in form and capital, the all-round data sharing and the consensual intelligent contract shall be used for constraint, and the risks shall be regulated and restrained in real time to finally achieve the cold chain distribution resource ecology integrating capital flow, logistics, information flow and business flow.

以上列举的四个思路,我们可以知道,在新技术的充分利用下,通过区块链的技术创新,来实现我们冷链行业的技术、模式创新。

From the four ideas listed above, we can know that we can make full use of the new technology to achieve technology and mode innovation in the cold chain industry through technology innovation of the block chain.

结论

Conclusion

本文中结合区块链特性所列举的分析思路仅仅是在冷链运输领域的货物转运阶段的区块链应用。实际上区块链技术在整个冷链运输的其他环节同样有着广阔的应用空间。同时,区块链技术也是日臻完善,我们可以要利用技术更新迭代的机会,给我们带来更多的思路和方向,来保障我们的食品安全,促进市民消费升级,提升行业信息化水平,最终推动冷链物流行业发展。

In this paper, the analysis ideas listed in combination with the characteristics of the block chain are just the application of the block chain in the field of cold chain transportation at the stage of goods transshipment. In fact, the block chain technology also has the same broad application space in other links throughout the cold chain transportation process. At the same time, the block chain technology approaches perfection day by day, so we seize the opportunity of technology update and iteration to bring us more ideas and directions, ensure food safety, promote citizens to upgrade consumption and improve the level of informatization of the industry, so as to finally drive the development of the cold chain logistics industry.

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