一、 区块链概览… 3
I. Overview of Block Chain… 3
1.1、 区块链简介… 3
1.1. Introduction of block chain… 3
1.2. Classification of block chain… 4
1.3. Value and application of block chain… 7
II. Solution to Block Chain of Smart City… 10
III. Solution to Smart City by Field… 17
3.1. Intelligent medical treatment… 17
3.2. Intelligent Internet of Things… 25
3.3. Intelligent assets… 30
3.4. Intelligent supply chain… 34
IV. Outlook on Smart City based on Block Chain… 42
I. Overview of Block Chain
1.1. Introduction of block chain
Block chain is a new technology that gradually rises with the increasing popularity of digital currencies, such as Bitcoin. It provides a kind of trust establishment mechanism which is decentralized with no need for trust accumulation. At present, it has attracted much attention and widespread concern from the financial industry, scientific research institutions, government departments and investment companies. Block chain technology records all past transaction history and historical data by creating a database that is commonly maintained and cannot be tampered with, and all data is stored in a distributed way and is open and transparent. With this technology, any network users who are strangers to each other can reach a consensus through contract, point-to-point book accounting, digital encryption and other ways, without the need for any central trust institutions. In addition, we can establish digital currency, digital assets, intelligent contracts and so on with this technology.
Block-chain technology is essentially a distributed ledger database of peer-to-peer network. The low level of Bitcoin uses the technical framework of the block chain, which is a bunch of linked data blocks, and each of the data blocks records a set of tree-based transaction information consisting of Hash algorithm, thus ensuring that the transaction data within each block cannot be tampered with, so is the block linked within the block chain.
1.2. Classification of block chain
Block chain technology has a variety of classification ways, which can be divided into public chain, alliance chain and private chain by the participant.
l 公有链Public chain
Public chain is open to the public, so that the user can participate anonymously without registration, and has access to the network and block chain without authorization. The node can choose free access to the network. The blocks on the public chain can be viewed by anyone, and anyone can send transactions on the block chain and can participate in the formation of consensus mechanism on the network at any time.
Public chain is also often referred to as unlicensed chain, and Bitcoin, Ethereum and others can be considered as public chain. The public chain is suitable for virtual currency, e-commerce for the public, Internet finance and other B2C, C2C or C2B and other application scenarios.
l 联盟链Alliance chain
Alliance chain is limited to the participation of alliance members, and the read-write rights and interests on the block chain and the authority to participate in bookkeeping shall be formulated according to the alliance’s rules. The alliance chain is a kind of block chain that requires registration, and such block chain is also known as the permission chain, and currently the well-known alliance chains include R3 with the participation of more than 40 banks and the super account book project supported by Linux foundation.
Alliance chain is a kind of block chain that requires registration and permission, which is also known as the permission chain.
l 私有链Private chain
Private chain is used in private organizations only, and the read-write authority on the block chain and the authority to participate in bookkeeping shall be formulated according to the private organizations’ rules. In addition, the application scenarios of the private chain generally are the enterprise’ internal applications, such as database management and audit, etc.
The digital currency issued by the Central Bank probably uses the private chain. Similar to the alliance chain, private chain is a kind of permission chain.
1.3. Value and application of block chain
The trust mechanism of block chain technology is one of the core values of block chain technology, so the block chain technology itself is also known as the “distributed ledger technology”. Since ancient times, trust has been the foundation of financial and most economic activities. With the extensive application of mobile Internet, big data, Internet of Things and other information technology, trust of cyber space plays a more and more obvious role as the footstone of the digital society.
Specifically, the subversive value of the block chain technology includes at least the following aspects:
1). Simplify the process and improve the efficiency. As the block chain technology is shared among the parties through consensus, block chain technology is a common book that is established by consensus among participants, a consensus is reached on the state of the network, so a lot of processes and operations that are re-validated can be simplified, such as inter-bank reconciliation, clearing and settlement, etc.
2). Reduce the credit risk of counterparties. The block chain technology uses the intelligent contract and other means to ensure that multi-parties of the transaction can fulfill the agreed obligations to ensure transaction security and reduce credit risk.
3). Enhance transparency and regulatory efficiency. As the block chain technology can be used to well monitor the transaction in real time, which is irrevocable and undeniable, so as to enhance transparency and avoid extortion.
II. Solution to Block Chain of Smart City
The smart city based on the block chain technology has gradually been on the rise, traditional IT enterprises represented by IBM and start-ups represented by Factom are speeding up the layout in the field of smart city, making considerable progress in financial system, audit system, medical information system, supply chain, property deed tax, energy and electricity, legal applications and other fields.
The new smart city is constructed with the focus mainly on big data and block chain technology, and the multi-dimensional smart city solution is formed by means of combining “one center, four platforms, multi-application, unified chain”, as shown in Figure 2-1-1.
Figure 2-1-1 Structural Diagram of Solution to Smart City
The so-called “one center” is based on the city’s big data center in each dimension. “Four platforms” refer to the intelligent government integrated information service platform, intelligent urban management integrated information service platform, intelligent people’s livelihood information service platform and intelligent economic comprehensive information service platform. “Multi-application” contains a variety of intelligent applications. Finally, the “unified chain” is the credible intelligent urban information ecology based on the block chain.
Based on the smart city’s overall solution presented, it can be analyzed according to four dimensions separately as: perception layer, network layer, platform layer and application layer, as shown in Figure 2-1-2.
Figure 2-1-2 Four-layer Diagram of Overall Structure of Smart City
Block chain ecology
智慧政务 智慧交通 智慧人社 智慧金融 智慧安防 智慧医疗 智慧物联网 智慧资产 智慧供应链 智慧碳排放
Intelligent government affairs, intelligent transportation, intelligent human society, intelligent finance, intelligent security and protection, intelligent medical treatment, intelligent Internet of Things, intelligent assets, intelligent supply chain, intelligent carbon emission
应用层 Application layer
数据中心 征信中心 IT中心 Data center, credit information center, IT center
平台层 Platform layer
物联网 互联网 通信网 Internet of Things, Internet, communication network
网络层 Network layer
生化传感器 RFID 无线网关 互联网设备 Biochemical sensor, RFID, wireless network gateway, Internet device
感知层 Perception layer
Perception layer: It contains a variety of hardware sensors, RFID, various professional network hardware gateway equipment and Internet device. There hardware on the perception layer is used mainly to support our various networks.
Network layer: The layer is a carrier network used to support communication and data which is constructed by all kinds of hardware equipment on the perception layer. Generally speaking, we divide it into three types, that is, Internet of Things, communication network and Internet.
Platform layer: The platform layer refers to various information platforms constructed mainly through the carrier network. These information platforms provide basic information services for us to construct in the future, and the common platforms include information center platform, credit information center platform and IT center platform, etc.
Application layer: The application layer mainly involves the special services in every aspect in the process of building the smart city, such as intelligent government affairs, intelligent transportation, intelligent human society, intelligent finance, intelligent security and protection, intelligent medical treatment, intelligent Internet of Things, intelligent assets, intelligent supply chain, intelligent carbon emission, etc.
For the entire ecology composed of block chains, the low level of the technical block chain, starting from the network layer, builds its own block chain service platform. Its platform can also be used to build up multiple diversified applications in combination with the industry, finally serving as a comprehensive technology to constitute such ecology of unified chain.
The above four layers constitute the core components of our “one center, four platforms, multi-application, unified chain”.
III. Solution to Smart City by Field
3.1. Intelligent medical treatment
In the medical field, the application of block chain is in the ascendant. At present, the practice of block chain in the medical field mainly occurs in the United States. Companies that conduct business in the medical field of block chain can mainly be divided into three types: Start-ups represented by Gem and Hashed Health, traditional IT companies represented by IBM and companies in cooperation with traditional medical companies through Tierion+Philip block chain. At present, the projects of the three types of companies are still in the experimental stage, but still has attracted the attention of the government agencies and large scientific and technological enterprises including the SFDA and Inter.
At present, the application of block chain technology mainly has three directions in the medical field:
Secure storage and sharing of medical data, reform of medical flow and supervision over drug supply chain and drug identification.
l 医疗数据安全存储与共享Secure storage and sharing of medical data
At present, more than two thirds of the supply chain enterprises focus on the development in the field of medical data, such as BitHeath and PokitDok. BitHeath uses block chain technology to store medical health data and can recover the data from any node around the world. Using the block chain technology, the data will be spread internationally in a peer-to-peer file sharing technique similar to BitTorrent. In case of a network fault, data can be recovered from the local node. However, pokitDok has extended in-depth cooperation with Inter at present, with the aim of achieving data security at the level of chip.
In addition to relevant enterprises, some government organizations have also carried out relevant experiments. The Estonian e-Health Foundation and Guardtime conducted a project which stores a million copies of patient’s medical records, and this is today’s most representative case, which incorporates Guardtime’s keyless signature infrastructure block chain technology with the Oracle Data Engine for secure and real-time viewing of patient cases.
Figure 3-1-1 Diagram of Solution to Hospitals in Smart City
用户接入层 User access layer
业务逻辑层 Business logic layer
外部接口层 External interface layer
患者信息 Patient information
医生信息 Doctor information
诊疗信息 Medical information
其他相关信息 Other relevant information
l 医疗流程改革Reform of medical flow
At present, in addition to the field of medical data, the reform of medical process has also gained wide attention from companies represented by PokitDok and Gem. PokitDok mainly applies the block chain technology to confirmation of user identity and identification of consumer and service provider, and uses the intelligent contract to achieve rapid compensation of medical insurance based on automatic identification of the transaction participants. In addition, Gem aims to provide medical healthcare service provider with network infrastructure, so as to enable it to adopt more Internet of Things and block chain proposals in the field of medical health.
Figure 3-1-2 Diagram of Solution to Comprehensive Medical Treatment in Smart City
保险公司 Insurance company
医疗数据公司 Medical data company
药品采购中心 Drug procurement center
其他参与方 Other participants
Supervision over drug supply chain and drug identification
目前，药品监管领域主要是关注供应链方向的区块链公司在开展。Block Verify公司是典型代表。Block Verify是一家基于区块链技术的防伪方案服务商，提供的服务包括：真伪验证、产品追踪等。这与药品监管领域有着高度的契合点。
At present, the field of drug regulation is mainly concerned about the block chain companies in the supply chain direction, typically represented by Block Verify. Block Verify is an anti-counterfeiting service provider based on block chain technology, and the services provided includes: authenticity verification, product tracking and so on. In addition, it has a high degree of integrated point with the field of drug regulation.
Figure 3-1-3 Diagram of Solution to Logistics Cold Chain in Smart City
For the entire cold chain of drugs, there are many participants, and all participants are connected through the data collected by the intelligent Internet of Things equipment, linking up five parts from drug manufacturer, dealer, carrier, hospital and regulator. The block chain technology is used to make the data on chain, which puts an end to the possibility of artificial tampering and ensures data security and traceability. In addition, the feature of automatic implementation of the intelligent contract is used to automatically alarm in case of abnormality when collecting data to avoid greater losses.
软硬件条件 Software and hardware conditions
温度传感器 Temperature sensor
医药企业 Pharmaceutical enterprise
中心仓储 Center’s storage
经销商仓储 Dealer’s storage
冷链 Cold chain
大医院 Large hospital
小医院 Small hospital
医药冷链流程 Cold chain process of drugs
3.2. Intelligent Internet of Things
At present, the ecology of Internet of Things uses the traditional network architecture, all equipment is validated and connected through the cloud server, and the cloud server is required to have strong operation and storage capacity. Moreover, the connection between all Internet of Things equipment will be achieved through the Internet only, even if it occurs within several meters only.
The mode has been in use for many years, and can still be able to support small-scale network of Internet of Things. However, in the face of the growing demand for the ecological system of Internet of Things, massive data and information, communication information and architecture of traditional Internet of Things are confronted with unprecedented economic and engineering challenges.
Figure 3-2-1 Structural Diagram of Hardware and Software for Internet of Things in Smart City
物联网硬件层面 Hardware layer of Internet of Things
感知层 Perception layer
网络层 Network layer
平台层 Platform layer
应用层 Application layer
定位模组 Positioning module
SIM制造商 SIM manufacturer
设备管理平台 Equipment management platform
智能水/电表 Intelligent water meter/electricity meter
工业监控检测 Industrial monitoring and detection
可穿戴设备 Wearable equipment
智能家居 Intelligent home
物联网软件层面 Software layer of Internet of Things
感知层 Perception layer
网络层 Network layer
平台层 Platform layer
应用层 Application layer
无线通信模组 Wireless communication module
基础电信运营商 Basic telecommunication operator
连接管理平台 Connection management platform
应用开发平台 Application development platform
系统及软件开发 System and software development
设备系统集成 Equipment system integration
应用系统集成 Application system integration
Block chain technology shall be introduced as a new partner of the traditional Internet of Things to construct the intelligent Internet of Things.
Protect privacy of user and rebuild the trust mechanism
At present, all data received and transmitted by the centralized server structure is stored and circulated by the central server, whose security has a direct influence on the security of multiple user information collected by the sensor and accuracy of control instructions given.
At the same time, it is a tremendous workload to identify the problem node for a network of Internet of Things with hundreds of millions of users.
What the block chain can do is to rebuild the connection mode of the Internet of Things equipment, which will use the distributed network structure to keep the consensus between equipment with no need for validation with the central server and database, and there is no central data service provider if such architecture is adopted, so there is no problem of leak of user information in batch. If one or a few nodes are attacked, the system of the entire network is still stable.
l 降低运营成本，普及物联设备 Reduce operation cost and popularize Internet of Things equipment
At present, the traditional architecture of Internet of Things is to piece together the recorded data into the central server. At the moment, hundreds of millions of nodes produce massive data and communication bandwidth, and the installation and operation costs of the required large server, network equipment and other infrastructure are very high.
However, block chain technology provides Internet of Things equipment with the point-to-point communication mode to transmit the data produced, and CPU is no longer a necessity, so that the distributed calculation can be used to process hundreds of millions of transactions. In addition, measures shall be taken to make full use of idle computing power, storage capacity and bandwidth for transaction processing, so as to result in a significant decrease in storage costs.
3.3. Intelligent assets
Intellectual assets are a kind of digital proof of owning physical assets that exist on the Internet. The advantage of intellectual assets relative to traditional physical assets lies in the interconnection of digital assets, and the liquidity of intellectual assets is far more than that of traditional physical evidence. However, the enhancement in liquidity and others can reduce the transaction costs, shorten the investment cycle and quickly raise funds.
Smart assets can be used in registration of a variety of physical products in real life, such as real estate, billboard, automobile and so on, which can also be some innovative assets, such as assets of solar power generation and so on.
l 商业媒介与服务数字资产交易Commercial media and service digital asset transaction
Figure 3-3-1-1 Structural Diagram of Intelligent Assets in Smart City
自动贩卖机 Vending machine
多媒体广告 Multi-media advertisement
区块链交易平台 Transaction platform of block chain
Operator will deploy multimedia advertisement in commercial centers or residential areas, or provide services for vending machines. It will fund through investment because these products can continue to produce corresponding benefits, and investors will continue to receive the corresponding benefit funds after buying the products.
The operator will convert the product into a digitized asset to record in the block chain and grant the real right to the investor. In addition, product earnings will be automatically added under the investor’s name through the intelligent contract, and the product will also be available within the chain in the form of digital assets.
l 太阳能发电智慧资产交易 Transaction of intelligent assets of solar power generation
Figure 3-3-1-2 Structural Diagram of Innovative Intelligent Assets of Solar Power Generation in Smart City
项目发起者发起新项目 Project initiator initiates a new project
投资散户 Retail investor
区块链网络 Block chain network
智能合约 Intelligent contract
项目发起者 Project initiator
项目施工单位 Project construction organization
国家电网 State Grid
供电 Power supply
硬件设备 Hardware equipment
资金划入 Capital inflow
太阳能设备节点 Solar energy equipment node
统筹账户 Pooling account
物业方 Property management party
每个投资散户 Each retail investor
The purpose of intelligent assets is to use the block chain technology to add new vitality to low-liquidity assets. By increasing liquidity, it can reduce transaction costs, shorten investment cycle, raise funds quickly and promote better and faster development of entity enterprises and more efficient construction of the smart city.
3.4. Intelligent supply chain
At present, as the division of globalization deepens, the supply chain of modern manufacturing industry is constantly extended, and it has the characteristics of fragmentation, complication and decentralization, posing great challenges to the management of modern supply chain. And such situation leads to the non-transparency of the supply chain opacity, resulting in high cost of communication between upstream and downstream enterprises. In addition, the block chain, as the most ideal tool for rebuilding trust, can improve the enterprise’s ability to control the supply chain, making efficient and accurate product traceability become a reality.
l 供应链溯源Supply chain traceability
The modern supply chain system covers the whole process of the commodity from production, transportation to sales and from raw materials to finished products. At present, as a producer, it is difficult to monitor the commodity circulation process in the face of the extremely complex supply chain, and the regulation is weak. However, the Buyer lacks a reliable way to verify the authenticity of the commodity. For ordinary commodities, forged and fake commodities will damage the economic interests of consumers, while forged and fake food and drugs will directly endanger life health of the consumers. As a result, it is an urgent task to use the block chain technology to rebuild the supply chain system.
At present, the common practice of block chain technology in the field of anti-counterfeiting traceability is to register an ID for each product on chain, so that it will have a unique digital identity. All information about the digital identity shall be recorded through the public account to ensure that the information is true and reliable and cannot be tampered with. Different from the traditional supply chain management system, it can only be said that the particle size can reach the SKU level and traditional database is used to record data, but it is difficult to rule out the interference of human factors.
As the commodity producer, it can monitor the whole process of commodity circulation, while as consumers, we can have access to key information through the digital ID, including place of origin of the product, raw materials, circulation information and so on for reference.
Figure 3-4-1 Schematic Diagram of Anti-counterfeiting Proposal for Supply Chain in Smart City
产地提供商 Provider in place of origin
随机数 Random number
前置哈希 Front Hash
<区块内容：时间戳等> <Block content: Timestamp, etc.>
Information about the geological location of the block chain which is credible but cannot be tampered with guarantees the accurate and authentic traceability online and offline
In addition to this, the producer can quickly locate the problem batch SKU or even the product itself by checking the shared account books in case of problem found in the product, so as to avoid a wide range of recall of problem products and lower the economic losses.
l 打破信息孤岛，实现信息互联互通 Break information island and achieve information interconnection
For the traditional supply chain information system, each participant is only concerned about its own information, as a result of which the production, logistics, sales, distribution, raw materials and regulatory information are completely fragmented, leaving no platform with focus on the commodity which is totally credible, integrating all commodity information. This also results in high cost of communication between different parties. At the same time, the information island leads to cumbersome information check and imbalanced interaction of data upstream and downstream the supply chain. In most cases, it is necessary to repeat the reconciliation offline to ensure that the main sentence is accurate, which results in additional economic and time costs and also increases the risks to the financial industry.
Due to its non-tampering, decentralized and asymmetric encryption characteristics, the block chain technology is naturally suitable for scenarios with multi-party participation and information exchange, which can help achieve data democratization and link up the scattered databases, and can protect the privacy of each participant through the encryption algorithm. For upstream and downstream participants in the supply chain, they can achieve smooth data interaction without leak of business secrets.
Figure 3-4-2 Structural Diagram of Intelligent Supply Chain in Smart City
产地提供商 Provider of place of origin
Place of origin: Data of country of origin, environmental monitoring data and data on chain of upstream suppliers
Sales: Market, consumer data, purchase and sale information and evaluation and other feedback data on chain
Logistics: Logistics transfer data, distribution and distribution data on chain
Product: Product monitoring data, package and digital data on chain
IV. Outlook on Smart City based on Block Chain
The city is a complex integrated system and is densely populated, gathering a variety of scenes, which has already doomed that it is a system project to build a smart city, and it needs to use a variety of existing technologies to build. As we know, the block chain technology is not a disruptive technology, but it rebuilds the trust mechanism based on the existing Internet, big data, cloud computing and other technologies, so that the network can not only achieve dissemination of information, but achieve value transfer.
In this paper, we have mentioned the application of a lot of block chain technologies in construction of the smart city, including intelligent medical treatment, we also use the block chain technology to achieve storage, circulation, recovery and so on of electronic medical records, so as to simplify the medical insurance compensation process through the intelligent contract and ensure the safety and authenticity of drugs through the whole-process monitoring of drug circulation supply chain. The intelligent Internet of Things uses the point-to-point communication mechanism of the block-chain technology to reduce operation costs and popularize the Internet of Things, and uses the feature of asymmetrical encryption to protect the privacy of user and rebuild the trust mechanism. For the intellectual assets, it uses the block chain technology to provide digital proof of physical assets, so as to speed up the velocity of circulation of traditional assets, shorten the investment cycle and reduce transaction costs, etc. In addition, the intelligent supply chain achieves food and industrial product traceability and reduces the risk of fake commodity. At the same time, it breaks the information island to promote the upstream and downstream interaction of the supply chain and reduce time and economic costs.
In addition, the block chain technology also has a lot of applications in other aspects in the construction process of the smart city, and has a broad prospect in the fields such as intelligent transportation, e-government affairs and legal applications, etc. As the catchwords in the field of block chain goes that, the future has already arrived but has not yet been popular, so the smart city can be expected based on the block chain technology.