[区块链]黑科技区块链如何来建设“智慧城市”

章节

一、 区块链概览… 3

I. Overview of Block Chain… 3

1.1、 区块链简介… 3

1.1. Introduction of block chain… 3

1.2、区块链分类… 4

1.2. Classification of block chain… 4

1.3、区块链价值与应用… 7

1.3. Value and application of block chain… 7

二、智慧城市区块链解决方案… 10

II. Solution to Block Chain of Smart City… 10

三、智慧城市分领域解决方案… 17

III. Solution to Smart City by Field… 17

3.1、智慧医疗… 17

3.1. Intelligent medical treatment… 17

3.2、智慧物联网… 24

3.2. Intelligent Internet of Things… 25

3.3、智慧资产… 30

3.3. Intelligent assets… 30

3.4、智慧供应链… 34

3.4. Intelligent supply chain… 34

四、基于区块链的智慧城市展望… 42

IV. Outlook on Smart City based on Block Chain… 42

一、区块链概览

I. Overview of Block Chain

1.1、 区块链简介

1.1. Introduction of block chain

区块链是随着比特币等数字货币的日益普及而逐渐兴起的一种全新技术,它提供了一种去中心化的、无需信任积累的信任建立机制,目前已经引起了金融行业、科研机构、政府部门和投资公司的高度重视和广泛关注。区块链技术通过建立一个共同维护且不可篡改的数据库来记录过去的所有的交易记录和历史数据,所有的数据都是分布式存储且公开透明的。在这种技术下,任何互不相识的网络用户都可以通过合约、点对点记账、数字加密等方式达成共识,而不需要任何中央信任的机构。在这种技术下,我们可以建立数字货币、数字资产、智能合约等。

Block chain is a new technology that gradually rises with the increasing popularity of digital currencies, such as Bitcoin. It provides a kind of trust establishment mechanism which is decentralized with no need for trust accumulation. At present, it has attracted much attention and widespread concern from the financial industry, scientific research institutions, government departments and investment companies. Block chain technology records all past transaction history and historical data by creating a database that is commonly maintained and cannot be tampered with, and all data is stored in a distributed way and is open and transparent. With this technology, any network users who are strangers to each other can reach a consensus through contract, point-to-point book accounting, digital encryption and other ways, without the need for any central trust institutions. In addition, we can establish digital currency, digital assets, intelligent contracts and so on with this technology.

区块链技术本质上是一个对等网络的分布式账本数据库。比特币的底层就采用了区块链的技术框架。其本身就是一串链接的数据区块,每个数据区块中记录了一组采用哈希算法组成的树状交易信息,这样就保证了每个区块内的交易数据不可篡改,区块链内链接的区块也是不可篡改的。

Block-chain technology is essentially a distributed ledger database of peer-to-peer network. The low level of Bitcoin uses the technical framework of the block chain, which is a bunch of linked data blocks, and each of the data blocks records a set of tree-based transaction information consisting of Hash algorithm, thus ensuring that the transaction data within each block cannot be tampered with, so is the block linked within the block chain.

1.2、区块链分类

1.2. Classification of block chain

区块链技术的分类方式多种多样,按参与方分为:公有链、联盟链、私有链。

Block chain technology has a variety of classification ways, which can be divided into public chain, alliance chain and private chain by the participant.

l 公有链Public chain

公有链对外公开,用户不用注册就能匿名参与,无需授权即可访问网络与区块链。节点可选择自由出入网络。公有链上的区块可以被任何人查看,任何人可以在区块链上发送交易,还可以随时参与网络上的形成共识机制。

Public chain is open to the public, so that the user can participate anonymously without registration, and has access to the network and block chain without authorization. The node can choose free access to the network. The blocks on the public chain can be viewed by anyone, and anyone can send transactions on the block chain and can participate in the formation of consensus mechanism on the network at any time.

公有链通常也称为非许可链。比特币、以太坊等都是公共链。公共链适合虚拟货币、面向大众的电子商务、互联网金融等B2C、C2C或C2B等应用场景。

Public chain is also often referred to as unlicensed chain, and Bitcoin, Ethereum and others can be considered as public chain. The public chain is suitable for virtual currency, e-commerce for the public, Internet finance and other B2C, C2C or C2B and other application scenarios.

l 联盟链Alliance chain

联盟链仅限于联盟成员参与,区块链上的读写权益、参与记账权限按联盟规则来制定。联盟链是一种需要注册许可的区块链,这种区块链也称为许可链,目前知名的联盟链有40多家银行参与的R3与Linux基金会支持的超级账本项目。

Alliance chain is limited to the participation of alliance members, and the read-write rights and interests on the block chain and the authority to participate in bookkeeping shall be formulated according to the alliance’s rules. The alliance chain is a kind of block chain that requires registration, and such block chain is also known as the permission chain, and currently the well-known alliance chains include R3 with the participation of more than 40 banks and the super account book project supported by Linux foundation.

联盟链是一种需要注册许可的区块链,这种区块链也称为许可链。

Alliance chain is a kind of block chain that requires registration and permission, which is also known as the permission chain.

l 私有链Private chain

私有链仅在私有组织使用,区块链上的读写权限、参与记账权限按私有组织规则来制定。私有链的应用场景一般是企业内部应用,如数据库管理、审计等。

Private chain is used in private organizations only, and the read-write authority on the block chain and the authority to participate in bookkeeping shall be formulated according to the private organizations’ rules. In addition, the application scenarios of the private chain generally are the enterprise’ internal applications, such as database management and audit, etc.

央行发行的数字货币可能就是采用私有链。和联盟链类似,私有链也是一种许可链。

The digital currency issued by the Central Bank probably uses the private chain. Similar to the alliance chain, private chain is a kind of permission chain.

1.3、区块链价值与应用

1.3. Value and application of block chain

区块链技术信任机制是区块链技术的核心价值之一,因此区块链技术本身也就被称为“分布式账本技术”。自古以来,信任就是金融和大部分经济活动的基础,随着移动互联网、大数据、物联网等信息技术的广泛应用,网络空间的信用作为数字社会的基石作用越发明显。

The trust mechanism of block chain technology is one of the core values of block chain technology, so the block chain technology itself is also known as the “distributed ledger technology”. Since ancient times, trust has been the foundation of financial and most economic activities. With the extensive application of mobile Internet, big data, Internet of Things and other information technology, trust of cyber space plays a more and more obvious role as the footstone of the digital society.

具体来看,区块链技术的颠覆性价值至少包含以下几个方面:

Specifically, the subversive value of the block chain technology includes at least the following aspects:

1)、简化流程,提升效率。由于区块链技术是参与方之间通过共识共享。由于区块链技术是参与方之间通过共识共享的方式建立的公共账本,形成对网络状态的共识,因此许多重复验证的流程和操作就可以简化,例如银行间的对账、清算、结算等。

1). Simplify the process and improve the efficiency. As the block chain technology is shared among the parties through consensus, block chain technology is a common book that is established by consensus among participants, a consensus is reached on the state of the network, so a lot of processes and operations that are re-validated can be simplified, such as inter-bank reconciliation, clearing and settlement, etc.

2)、降低交易对手的信用风险。区块链技术利用智能合约等手段保证交易多方能够完成约定义务,确保交易安全,降低信用风险。

2). Reduce the credit risk of counterparties. The block chain technology uses the intelligent contract and other means to ensure that multi-parties of the transaction can fulfill the agreed obligations to ensure transaction security and reduce credit risk.

3)、提升透明度和监管效率。由于区块链技术能够很好的实时监控交易,不可撤销、不可抵赖,从而提高透明度,避免敲诈行为。

3). Enhance transparency and regulatory efficiency. As the block chain technology can be used to well monitor the transaction in real time, which is irrevocable and undeniable, so as to enhance transparency and avoid extortion.

二、智慧城市区块链解决方案

II. Solution to Block Chain of Smart City

基于区块链技术的智慧城市已经逐渐兴起,以IBM为代表的传统IT企业、Factom公证通为代表的初创公司均加速在智慧城市领域进行布局,在金融系统、审计系统、医疗信息系统、供应链、财产契税、能源电力、法律应用等领域均取得了长足的进步。

The smart city based on the block chain technology has gradually been on the rise, traditional IT enterprises represented by IBM and start-ups represented by Factom are speeding up the layout in the field of smart city, making considerable progress in financial system, audit system, medical information system, supply chain, property deed tax, energy and electricity, legal applications and other fields.

新型智慧城市主要围绕以大数据和区块链技术为核心建设的。通过组合“一中心、四平台、多应用、统一链“的方式构成多维度的智慧城市解决方案,如图2-1-1所示。

The new smart city is constructed with the focus mainly on big data and block chain technology, and the multi-dimensional smart city solution is formed by means of combining “one center, four platforms, multi-application, unified chain”, as shown in Figure 2-1-1.

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图2-1-1智慧城市解决方案构成图

Figure 2-1-1 Structural Diagram of Solution to Smart City

所谓“一中心”是基于城市的各维度大数据中心。“四平台”即智慧政务综合信息服务平台、智慧城管综合信息服务平台、智慧民生综合信息服务平台和智慧经济综合信息服务平台。“多应用”包含了各类的智慧应用。最后“统一链”则是基于区块链的可信智慧城市信息生态。

The so-called “one center” is based on the city’s big data center in each dimension. “Four platforms” refer to the intelligent government integrated information service platform, intelligent urban management integrated information service platform, intelligent people’s livelihood information service platform and intelligent economic comprehensive information service platform. “Multi-application” contains a variety of intelligent applications. Finally, the “unified chain” is the credible intelligent urban information ecology based on the block chain.

基于智慧城市总体解决方案呈现,根据四个维度来剖析分别为:感知层、网络层、平台层和应用层,如图2-1-2所示。

Based on the smart city’s overall solution presented, it can be analyzed according to four dimensions separately as: perception layer, network layer, platform layer and application layer, as shown in Figure 2-1-2.

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图2-1-2 智慧城市整体结构四层图

Figure 2-1-2 Four-layer Diagram of Overall Structure of Smart City


区块链生态

Block chain ecology

智慧政务 智慧交通 智慧人社 智慧金融 智慧安防 智慧医疗 智慧物联网 智慧资产 智慧供应链 智慧碳排放

Intelligent government affairs, intelligent transportation, intelligent human society, intelligent finance, intelligent security and protection, intelligent medical treatment, intelligent Internet of Things, intelligent assets, intelligent supply chain, intelligent carbon emission

应用层 Application layer

数据中心 征信中心 IT中心 Data center, credit information center, IT center

平台层 Platform layer

物联网 互联网 通信网 Internet of Things, Internet, communication network

网络层 Network layer

生化传感器 RFID 无线网关 互联网设备 Biochemical sensor, RFID, wireless network gateway, Internet device

感知层 Perception layer


感知层:包含由各种传感器、RFID电子标签、各类职称网络的硬件网关设备和互联网设备。这些感知层硬件主要来支撑我们各种各种网络。

Perception layer: It contains a variety of hardware sensors, RFID, various professional network hardware gateway equipment and Internet device. There hardware on the perception layer is used mainly to support our various networks.

网络层:该层是从感知层的各种硬件设备上,构件的一个支撑通信和数据的载体网络。一般来说我们包含三类即物联网、通信网和互联网。

Network layer: The layer is a carrier network used to support communication and data which is constructed by all kinds of hardware equipment on the perception layer. Generally speaking, we divide it into three types, that is, Internet of Things, communication network and Internet.

平台层:平台层主要是通过在载体网络上构件的各种信息平台。这些信息平台为我们后续构件各类应用提供基本信息服务。常见的如数据中心平台、征信中心平台、IT中心平台等等。

Platform layer: The platform layer refers to various information platforms constructed mainly through the carrier network. These information platforms provide basic information services for us to construct in the future, and the common platforms include information center platform, credit information center platform and IT center platform, etc.

应用层:应用层主要是在智慧城市构件的过程中,涉及到的方方面面专项服务,如智慧政务、智慧交通、智慧人社、智慧金融、智慧安防、智慧医疗、智慧物联网、智慧资产、智慧供应链以及智慧碳排放等等。

Application layer: The application layer mainly involves the special services in every aspect in the process of building the smart city, such as intelligent government affairs, intelligent transportation, intelligent human society, intelligent finance, intelligent security and protection, intelligent medical treatment, intelligent Internet of Things, intelligent assets, intelligent supply chain, intelligent carbon emission, etc.

对于整个由区块链组成的生态,其技术区块链底层,自网络层出发,自身构建了区块链服务平台。其平台之上又可以结合行业搭建多重多样应用,这样最终作为一个综合性技术来构成了统一链这个生态。

For the entire ecology composed of block chains, the low level of the technical block chain, starting from the network layer, builds its own block chain service platform. Its platform can also be used to build up multiple diversified applications in combination with the industry, finally serving as a comprehensive technology to constitute such ecology of unified chain.

以上这四层构成了我们组成“一中心、四平台、多应用、统一链”的核心组成部分。

The above four layers constitute the core components of our “one center, four platforms, multi-application, unified chain”.

三、智慧城市分领域解决方案

III. Solution to Smart City by Field

3.1、智慧医疗

3.1. Intelligent medical treatment

区块链在医疗领域的应用方兴未艾,目前,区块链在医疗领域的实践主要发生在美国,在区块链医疗领域开展业务的公司主要分为三种:以Gem与Hashed Health公司为代表的初创公司,以IBM为代表的传统IT公司和以Tierion+Philip区块链公司与传统医疗公司合作的三种方式。目前,三类公司的项目基本仍处在实验阶段,但依然引起了包括美国国家食品药品监督局、Inter公司在内的政府机构与大型科技企业的关注。

In the medical field, the application of block chain is in the ascendant. At present, the practice of block chain in the medical field mainly occurs in the United States. Companies that conduct business in the medical field of block chain can mainly be divided into three types: Start-ups represented by Gem and Hashed Health, traditional IT companies represented by IBM and companies in cooperation with traditional medical companies through Tierion+Philip block chain. At present, the projects of the three types of companies are still in the experimental stage, but still has attracted the attention of the government agencies and large scientific and technological enterprises including the SFDA and Inter.

目前区块链技术在医疗领域的应用主要有三个方向:

At present, the application of block chain technology mainly has three directions in the medical field:

医疗数据安全存储与共享、医疗流程改革、药品供应链的监管与药品鉴别。

Secure storage and sharing of medical data, reform of medical flow and supervision over drug supply chain and drug identification.

l 医疗数据安全存储与共享Secure storage and sharing of medical data

目前,超过三分之二的区块链企业将发展重心放在了医疗数据领域,例如BitHeath、PokitDok。BitHeath运用区块链技术来存储医疗健康数据并能够将其从世界各地任一节点恢复。运用区块链技术,数据在国际上以类似于BitTorrent的点对点文件分享技术形式进行传播。万一出现网络故障,可以从本地节点恢复数据。而pokitDok公司目前与Inter公司开展了深入合作,旨在从芯片的层面实现数据的安全。

At present, more than two thirds of the supply chain enterprises focus on the development in the field of medical data, such as BitHeath and PokitDok. BitHeath uses block chain technology to store medical health data and can recover the data from any node around the world. Using the block chain technology, the data will be spread internationally in a peer-to-peer file sharing technique similar to BitTorrent. In case of a network fault, data can be recovered from the local node. However, pokitDok has extended in-depth cooperation with Inter at present, with the aim of achieving data security at the level of chip.

除了相关企业,一些政府组织也开展了相关的实验。爱沙尼亚电子卫生基金会与Guardtime公司开展了100万份病人医疗记录存储的项目。这是目前最有代表性的案例,该项目整合了Guardtime公司的无钥签名基础设施区块链技术与Oracle数据引擎,以实现安全并实时查看病人病例。

In addition to relevant enterprises, some government organizations have also carried out relevant experiments. The Estonian e-Health Foundation and Guardtime conducted a project which stores a million copies of patient’s medical records, and this is today’s most representative case, which incorporates Guardtime’s keyless signature infrastructure block chain technology with the Oracle Data Engine for secure and real-time viewing of patient cases.

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图3-1-1 智慧城市医院解决方案图

Figure 3-1-1 Diagram of Solution to Hospitals in Smart City


用户接入层 User access layer

业务逻辑层 Business logic layer

外部接口层 External interface layer

患者信息 Patient information

医生信息 Doctor information

诊疗信息 Medical information

其他相关信息 Other relevant information


l 医疗流程改革Reform of medical flow

目前,除了医疗数据领域,医疗流程改革也受到了广泛关注。以PokitDok、Gem公司为代表。PokitDok公司主要是利用区块链技术进行用户身份确认,识别消费者与服务提供商,在自动识别交易参与方的基础上,利用智能合约实现医疗保险的快速赔付。Gem旨在向医疗保健服务商提供网络基础设施,使得可以在医疗健康领域可以采用更多的物联网与区块链方案。

At present, in addition to the field of medical data, the reform of medical process has also gained wide attention from companies represented by PokitDok and Gem. PokitDok mainly applies the block chain technology to confirmation of user identity and identification of consumer and service provider, and uses the intelligent contract to achieve rapid compensation of medical insurance based on automatic identification of the transaction participants. In addition, Gem aims to provide medical healthcare service provider with network infrastructure, so as to enable it to adopt more Internet of Things and block chain proposals in the field of medical health.

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图3-1-2 智慧城市综合医疗解决方案图

Figure 3-1-2 Diagram of Solution to Comprehensive Medical Treatment in Smart City


医院 Hospital

监管机构 Regulator

保险公司 Insurance company

医疗数据公司 Medical data company

药品采购中心 Drug procurement center

患者 Patient

其他参与方 Other participants


l 药品供应链的监管与药品鉴别

Supervision over drug supply chain and drug identification

目前,药品监管领域主要是关注供应链方向的区块链公司在开展。Block Verify公司是典型代表。Block Verify是一家基于区块链技术的防伪方案服务商,提供的服务包括:真伪验证、产品追踪等。这与药品监管领域有着高度的契合点。

At present, the field of drug regulation is mainly concerned about the block chain companies in the supply chain direction, typically represented by Block Verify. Block Verify is an anti-counterfeiting service provider based on block chain technology, and the services provided includes: authenticity verification, product tracking and so on. In addition, it has a high degree of integrated point with the field of drug regulation.

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图3-1-3 智慧城市物流冷链解决方案图

Figure 3-1-3 Diagram of Solution to Logistics Cold Chain in Smart City


对于整个药品冷链,参与方众多,所有参与者通过智能物联设备所采集的数据串联起来,链接了从药品生产者、经销商、承运商、医院、监管机构的五个部分。利用区块链技术将数据上链,杜绝了认为篡改的可能,确保了数据的安全与可回溯。利用智能合约自动执行的特性,在采集数据出现异常时自动报警,避免出现更大损失。

For the entire cold chain of drugs, there are many participants, and all participants are connected through the data collected by the intelligent Internet of Things equipment, linking up five parts from drug manufacturer, dealer, carrier, hospital and regulator. The block chain technology is used to make the data on chain, which puts an end to the possibility of artificial tampering and ensures data security and traceability. In addition, the feature of automatic implementation of the intelligent contract is used to automatically alarm in case of abnormality when collecting data to avoid greater losses.

软硬件条件 Software and hardware conditions

温度传感器 Temperature sensor

生产 Production

医药企业 Pharmaceutical enterprise

仓储 Storage

中心仓储 Center’s storage

经销商仓储 Dealer’s storage

冷链 Cold chain

大医院 Large hospital

小医院 Small hospital

医药冷链流程 Cold chain process of drugs


3.2、智慧物联网

3.2. Intelligent Internet of Things

当前物联网生态以来的是传统的网络架构,所有的设备都是通过云服务器验证连接的,所依赖的云服务器需要具有强大的运行和存储能力。而且所有物联设备间的连接将会仅仅通过互联网实现,即使这只是在几米的范围内发生。

At present, the ecology of Internet of Things uses the traditional network architecture, all equipment is validated and connected through the cloud server, and the cloud server is required to have strong operation and storage capacity. Moreover, the connection between all Internet of Things equipment will be achieved through the Internet only, even if it occurs within several meters only.

这样的模式已经沿用许多年了,并且依然能够很好的支持小规模的物联网网络。但是面对日益增长的物联网生态体系的需求,海量的数据信息,通信信息,传统物联网架构面临着空前的经济与工程方面的挑战。

The mode has been in use for many years, and can still be able to support small-scale network of Internet of Things. However, in the face of the growing demand for the ecological system of Internet of Things, massive data and information, communication information and architecture of traditional Internet of Things are confronted with unprecedented economic and engineering challenges.

这里写图片描述
图3-2-1 智慧城市物联网硬件软件结构示意图

Figure 3-2-1 Structural Diagram of Hardware and Software for Internet of Things in Smart City


物联网硬件层面 Hardware layer of Internet of Things

感知层 Perception layer

网络层 Network layer

平台层 Platform layer

应用层 Application layer

传感器 Sensor

芯片 Chip

定位模组 Positioning module

SIM制造商 SIM manufacturer

设备管理平台 Equipment management platform

智能水/电表 Intelligent water meter/electricity meter

工业监控检测 Industrial monitoring and detection

可穿戴设备 Wearable equipment

智能家居 Intelligent home

物联网软件层面 Software layer of Internet of Things

感知层 Perception layer

网络层 Network layer

平台层 Platform layer

应用层 Application layer

无线通信模组 Wireless communication module

基础电信运营商 Basic telecommunication operator

连接管理平台 Connection management platform

应用开发平台 Application development platform

系统及软件开发 System and software development

设备系统集成 Equipment system integration

应用系统集成 Application system integration


引入区块链技术作为传统物联网的新搭档,构建智慧物联网。

Block chain technology shall be introduced as a new partner of the traditional Internet of Things to construct the intelligent Internet of Things.

l 保护用户隐私,重塑信任机制

Protect privacy of user and rebuild the trust mechanism

目前中心化服务器架构所有收发数据都是由中央服务器存储流转,中心服务器的安全直接影响到传感器所采集的多种用户信息的安全与发出的控制指令的准确性。

At present, all data received and transmitted by the centralized server structure is stored and circulated by the central server, whose security has a direct influence on the security of multiple user information collected by the sensor and accuracy of control instructions given.

同时,查出问题节点对于一个有着数以亿计用户的物联网网络,是个十分浩大的工作量。

At the same time, it is a tremendous workload to identify the problem node for a network of Internet of Things with hundreds of millions of users.

区块链所能做的是重塑物联网设备的连接方式,采用分布式的网络结构,使得设备之间保持共识,无需与中心服务器与数据库进行验证,采用这种架构,没有中心数据服务商,也就不存在批量用户信息泄露的问题。一个或者少量节点被攻破之后整个网络的体系依然是稳定的。

What the block chain can do is to rebuild the connection mode of the Internet of Things equipment, which will use the distributed network structure to keep the consensus between equipment with no need for validation with the central server and database, and there is no central data service provider if such architecture is adopted, so there is no problem of leak of user information in batch. If one or a few nodes are attacked, the system of the entire network is still stable.

l 降低运营成本,普及物联设备 Reduce operation cost and popularize Internet of Things equipment

目前传统的物联架构是将记录的数据汇总到中央服务器中,目前数以亿计的节点产生了海量的数据与通信带宽,所需的大型服务器,网络设备等基础设施的铺设与运营的成本是非常高的。

At present, the traditional architecture of Internet of Things is to piece together the recorded data into the central server. At the moment, hundreds of millions of nodes produce massive data and communication bandwidth, and the installation and operation costs of the required large server, network equipment and other infrastructure are very high.

而区块链技术为物联网设备提供了点对点通信的方式来传输所产生的数据,中央处理器不在是必须的设备,分布式的计算就可以处理数以亿计的交易了。充分利用闲置算力,存储容量与带宽,用于交易处理,大幅度降低和存储成本。

However, block chain technology provides Internet of Things equipment with the point-to-point communication mode to transmit the data produced, and CPU is no longer a necessity, so that the distributed calculation can be used to process hundreds of millions of transactions. In addition, measures shall be taken to make full use of idle computing power, storage capacity and bandwidth for transaction processing, so as to result in a significant decrease in storage costs.

3.3、智慧资产

3.3. Intelligent assets

智慧资产是一种存在于互联网上的拥有实体资产的一种数字化证明。 智慧资产相对于传统实体资产的优势在于数字资产的联网化,智慧资产的流动性远远超过了传统的实体证明。而流动性等增强可以降低交易成本,缩短投资周期,快速募集资金等。

Intellectual assets are a kind of digital proof of owning physical assets that exist on the Internet. The advantage of intellectual assets relative to traditional physical assets lies in the interconnection of digital assets, and the liquidity of intellectual assets is far more than that of traditional physical evidence. However, the enhancement in liquidity and others can reduce the transaction costs, shorten the investment cycle and quickly raise funds.

智慧资产可以应用于各种现实中实体的产品登记,比如房产,广告牌,汽车等。还可以是一些创新的资产如太阳能发电的资产等等。

Smart assets can be used in registration of a variety of physical products in real life, such as real estate, billboard, automobile and so on, which can also be some innovative assets, such as assets of solar power generation and so on.

l 商业媒介与服务数字资产交易Commercial media and service digital asset transaction

这里写图片描述

图3-3-1-1 智慧城市智慧资产结构示意图

Figure 3-3-1-1 Structural Diagram of Intelligent Assets in Smart City


运营商 Operator

自动贩卖机 Vending machine

多媒体广告 Multi-media advertisement

收益 Earnings

区块链交易平台 Transaction platform of block chain

客户 Client


运营商向商业中心或居民小区部署多媒体广告,或者自动贩卖机提供服务。由投资提供资金,由于这些产品可以持续的产生相应收益,在投资者购买产品后,将持续获得相应收益资金。

Operator will deploy multimedia advertisement in commercial centers or residential areas, or provide services for vending machines. It will fund through investment because these products can continue to produce corresponding benefits, and investors will continue to receive the corresponding benefit funds after buying the products.

运营商将产品转化为数字化的资产记录在区块链中,并将物权授予投资人。产品收益通过智能合约自动添加到投资者名下,同时产品还以数字资产的形式可以在链内流通交易。

The operator will convert the product into a digitized asset to record in the block chain and grant the real right to the investor. In addition, product earnings will be automatically added under the investor’s name through the intelligent contract, and the product will also be available within the chain in the form of digital assets.

l 太阳能发电智慧资产交易 Transaction of intelligent assets of solar power generation

这里写图片描述
图3-3-1-2 智慧城市太阳能创新智慧资产结构示意图
Figure 3-3-1-2 Structural Diagram of Innovative Intelligent Assets of Solar Power Generation in Smart City


项目发起者发起新项目 Project initiator initiates a new project

投资散户 Retail investor

区块链网络 Block chain network

智能合约 Intelligent contract

项目发起者 Project initiator

项目施工单位 Project construction organization

国家电网 State Grid

供电 Power supply

硬件设备 Hardware equipment

资金划入 Capital inflow

太阳能设备节点 Solar energy equipment node

统筹账户 Pooling account

物业方 Property management party

每个投资散户 Each retail investor


智慧资产目的是利用区块链技术为低流动性的资产增添新的活力,通过流动性的增强,可以降低交易成本,缩短投资周期,快速募集资金,促进实体企业更好更快的发展,智慧城市更高效的建设。

The purpose of intelligent assets is to use the block chain technology to add new vitality to low-liquidity assets. By increasing liquidity, it can reduce transaction costs, shorten investment cycle, raise funds quickly and promote better and faster development of entity enterprises and more efficient construction of the smart city.

3.4、智慧供应链

3.4. Intelligent supply chain

目前,随着全球化分工的日益深化,现代制造业的供应链不断延展,并且有:碎片化、复杂化、分散化的特点,为现代供应链的管理带来了极大的挑战。而这种现状导致了供应链的不透明性,导致上下游企业沟通成本高昂。区块链作为重塑信任最为理想的工具,能够提高企业对于供应链的掌控能力,使得高效准确的产品溯源成为现实。

At present, as the division of globalization deepens, the supply chain of modern manufacturing industry is constantly extended, and it has the characteristics of fragmentation, complication and decentralization, posing great challenges to the management of modern supply chain. And such situation leads to the non-transparency of the supply chain opacity, resulting in high cost of communication between upstream and downstream enterprises. In addition, the block chain, as the most ideal tool for rebuilding trust, can improve the enterprise’s ability to control the supply chain, making efficient and accurate product traceability become a reality.

l 供应链溯源Supply chain traceability

现代供应链体系囊括了商品从生产到运输到销售的全流程,从原材料到成品。而目前作为生产者,面对极为复杂的供应链,难以监控商品流通过程,监管乏力。而买方缺乏一种可靠的方式来验证商品的真伪。对于普通的商品假冒伪劣会损害消费者的经济利益,而食品药品会直接危害到消费者的生命健康。所以利用区块链技术重塑供应链体系刻不容缓。

The modern supply chain system covers the whole process of the commodity from production, transportation to sales and from raw materials to finished products. At present, as a producer, it is difficult to monitor the commodity circulation process in the face of the extremely complex supply chain, and the regulation is weak. However, the Buyer lacks a reliable way to verify the authenticity of the commodity. For ordinary commodities, forged and fake commodities will damage the economic interests of consumers, while forged and fake food and drugs will directly endanger life health of the consumers. As a result, it is an urgent task to use the block chain technology to rebuild the supply chain system.

目前区块链技术在防伪溯源领域的通用做法是:为每个商品在链上注册一个ID,使其拥有一个唯一的数字标识。通过公共账本来记录这个数字身份的所有信息,确保信息的真实可靠不可篡改。区别于传统的供应链管理体系,只能讲粒度做到SKU级别,采用传统数据库记录数据,难以排除人为因素干扰。

At present, the common practice of block chain technology in the field of anti-counterfeiting traceability is to register an ID for each product on chain, so that it will have a unique digital identity. All information about the digital identity shall be recorded through the public account to ensure that the information is true and reliable and cannot be tampered with. Different from the traditional supply chain management system, it can only be said that the particle size can reach the SKU level and traditional database is used to record data, but it is difficult to rule out the interference of human factors.

作为商品生产者可以全程监控商品流通的过程,作为消费者可以通过这个数字ID得到包括产品产地、原材料,流转信息等关键信息,以供参考。

As the commodity producer, it can monitor the whole process of commodity circulation, while as consumers, we can have access to key information through the digital ID, including place of origin of the product, raw materials, circulation information and so on for reference.

这里写图片描述

图3-4-1 智慧城市供应链防伪方案示意图
Figure 3-4-1 Schematic Diagram of Anti-counterfeiting Proposal for Supply Chain in Smart City


产地提供商 Provider in place of origin

工厂 Plant

分销 Distribution

供应商 Supplier

物流 Logistics

客户 Client

区块 Block

随机数 Random number

前置哈希 Front Hash

<区块内容:时间戳等> <Block content: Timestamp, etc.>


可信不可篡改的区块链地理位置信息保障了线上线下的溯源精准真实

Information about the geological location of the block chain which is credible but cannot be tampered with guarantees the accurate and authentic traceability online and offline

除此之外生产商在产品出现问题时,通过查看共享账本,可以快速定位问题批次SKU甚至产品本身,进而避免大范围召回问题产品,降低经济损失。

In addition to this, the producer can quickly locate the problem batch SKU or even the product itself by checking the shared account books in case of problem found in the product, so as to avoid a wide range of recall of problem products and lower the economic losses.

l 打破信息孤岛,实现信息互联互通 Break information island and achieve information interconnection

对于传统供应链信息系统,每个参与方只关注己方的信息,生产、物流、销售、流转、原料、监管信息完全割裂,没有一个围绕商品的完全可信的集合所有商品信息的平台。这造成了不同参与方之间沟通成本高企。同时数据孤岛导致了信息核对繁琐、供应链上下游数据交互不均衡,多数情况下需要线下重复对账确保主句准确,这带来了额外的经济与时间成本,也增加了金融行业的风险。

For the traditional supply chain information system, each participant is only concerned about its own information, as a result of which the production, logistics, sales, distribution, raw materials and regulatory information are completely fragmented, leaving no platform with focus on the commodity which is totally credible, integrating all commodity information. This also results in high cost of communication between different parties. At the same time, the information island leads to cumbersome information check and imbalanced interaction of data upstream and downstream the supply chain. In most cases, it is necessary to repeat the reconciliation offline to ensure that the main sentence is accurate, which results in additional economic and time costs and also increases the risks to the financial industry.

区块链技术由于其不可篡改、去中心化、非对称加密的特点,天然适合多方参与、信息交换的场景,能够帮助实现数据的民主化,将分散的数据库连接起来,又能通过加密算法保护参与各方的隐私。对于供应链参与的上下游参与者,可以做到通畅的数据交互,同时又不会造成商业机密泄露。

Due to its non-tampering, decentralized and asymmetric encryption characteristics, the block chain technology is naturally suitable for scenarios with multi-party participation and information exchange, which can help achieve data democratization and link up the scattered databases, and can protect the privacy of each participant through the encryption algorithm. For upstream and downstream participants in the supply chain, they can achieve smooth data interaction without leak of business secrets.

这里写图片描述

图3-4-2 智慧城市智慧供应链结构示意图
Figure 3-4-2 Structural Diagram of Intelligent Supply Chain in Smart City


产地提供商 Provider of place of origin

工厂 Plant

分销 Distribution

供应商 Supplier

物流 Logistics

客户 Client

产地:原产地数据,环境监测数据及上游供应商数据上链

Place of origin: Data of country of origin, environmental monitoring data and data on chain of upstream suppliers

销售:市场,消费者数据,购销信息及评价等反馈数据上链

Sales: Market, consumer data, purchase and sale information and evaluation and other feedback data on chain

物流:物流中转数据,分销及配送数据上链

Logistics: Logistics transfer data, distribution and distribution data on chain

产品:产品监测数据,包装,数码数据上链

Product: Product monitoring data, package and digital data on chain


四、基于区块链的智慧城市展望

IV. Outlook on Smart City based on Block Chain

城市是个纷繁复杂的综合系统,人口稠密,各种场景汇聚在一起,这就注定了建设智慧城市是一个系统工程,需要借助各种现有的技术来构建。区块链技术并不是一种颠覆性的技术,而是基于现有的互联网、大数据、云计算等技术重塑信任机制,使网络不仅仅实现信息的传播,而是实现价值的转移。

The city is a complex integrated system and is densely populated, gathering a variety of scenes, which has already doomed that it is a system project to build a smart city, and it needs to use a variety of existing technologies to build. As we know, the block chain technology is not a disruptive technology, but it rebuilds the trust mechanism based on the existing Internet, big data, cloud computing and other technologies, so that the network can not only achieve dissemination of information, but achieve value transfer.

上文中提到了许多区块链技术在建设智慧城市中的应用,包括智慧医疗,利用区块链技术实现电子病历的存储、流转、恢复等,通过智能合约简化医疗保险报销流程,通过对药品流转供应链进行全程监控确保药品的安全性与真实性。智慧物联网,利用区块链技术的点对点通信机制降低运营成本,普及物联设备,利用其不对称加密特性保护用户隐私,重塑信任机制。智慧资产,利用区块链技术进行实体资产的数字化证明,加速传统资产的流通速度,缩短投资周期,降低交易成本等。智慧供应链实现食品、工业品溯源,降低假货风险。同时能够打破信息孤岛,促使供应链上下游交互,减少时间与经济成本。

In this paper, we have mentioned the application of a lot of block chain technologies in construction of the smart city, including intelligent medical treatment, we also use the block chain technology to achieve storage, circulation, recovery and so on of electronic medical records, so as to simplify the medical insurance compensation process through the intelligent contract and ensure the safety and authenticity of drugs through the whole-process monitoring of drug circulation supply chain. The intelligent Internet of Things uses the point-to-point communication mechanism of the block-chain technology to reduce operation costs and popularize the Internet of Things, and uses the feature of asymmetrical encryption to protect the privacy of user and rebuild the trust mechanism. For the intellectual assets, it uses the block chain technology to provide digital proof of physical assets, so as to speed up the velocity of circulation of traditional assets, shorten the investment cycle and reduce transaction costs, etc. In addition, the intelligent supply chain achieves food and industrial product traceability and reduces the risk of fake commodity. At the same time, it breaks the information island to promote the upstream and downstream interaction of the supply chain and reduce time and economic costs.

除此之外,区块链技术在智慧城市建设过程中还有很多其他方面的应用,如智慧交通,电子政务,法律应用等领域均有着广阔的前景。借助一句区块链领域流行语–未来已来只是尚未流行,基于区块链技术的智慧城市未来可期。

In addition, the block chain technology also has a lot of applications in other aspects in the construction process of the smart city, and has a broad prospect in the fields such as intelligent transportation, e-government affairs and legal applications, etc. As the catchwords in the field of block chain goes that, the future has already arrived but has not yet been popular, so the smart city can be expected based on the block chain technology.

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